Videolaparoscopy and hysteroscopy is a perfect combination of medical science-surgery and technology.
A long tube-like an instrument, which has a telescope at its one end is connected to a camera at its opposite end, is introduced into the body through a small hole like incision which is made just below the umbilicus (navel). Whatever the telescope sees is transmitted to a monitor/TV, via the camera. When this video laparoscopy is done to see the status of uterus, tubes & ovary, only one hole is enough. It also tells us about tubo ovarian relationship. By introducing dye in the uterus from the cervix & seeing it coming out of the tubes from the laparoscope confirms the tubal patency. This investigation along with hysteroscopy is a must before doing superovulation with IUI.
Apart from this diagnostic procedure, therapeutic laparoscopic surgeries can also be done like separating the adherent tubes and ovaries, removing fibroids (simple uterine tumors) from the outer wall of the uterus, and ovarian drilling in patients with polycystic ovaries. Patients with the polycystic ovarian disease have large ovaries. They have irregular periods because they do not produce ova/ eggs every month and they also have a tendency to gain weight easily. In these cases through video laparoscopy, punctures are done in the ovaries with the help of electric cautery to promote regular ovulation. This is known as ovarian drilling and it increases the chances of pregnancy significantly.
Hysteroscopy is seeing the uterine cavity from inside with a telescope attached to the camera as in laparoscopy. Fibroids or polyp in the uterine cavity can be diagnosed by this procedure and can also be removed by hysteroscopic surgery. It can also be used for removal of the septum, or to cut off the adhesions between endometrial surfaces. Whole hysteroscopic & laparoscopic surgeries be seen live on TV & is recorded on a video cassette or CD, so that can be referred at a later date. Thus video endoscopy, which includes laparoscopy & hysteroscopy both and is a very important procedure in infertility management.